Scholasticism is a school of medieval philosophy or, perhaps more precisely, a learning method which was taught by the academics of medieval universities and cathedrals in the period from the 12th to the 16th century. It was a school that combined logic, metaphysics and semantics into a single discipline, and has helped us to develop our understanding of logic in a meaningful way. The term "scholastic" derives from the Latin word "scholasticus" and from the Greek "scholastikos" which literally means "to dedicate leisure to learning" or "scholar" and the Greek "scholeion" which has the meaning "school". The term "scholars" is also commonly used to describe scholastics.
Eleatic school, Miletus school
It is a current of teaching that was the result of the union of theological thought and philosophical thought that sought to understand and give an explanation about the supernatural revelations that Christianity had.
We can say that the scholasticism is a tool and a method of learning based on dialectical reasoning and is aimed at answering a series of questions or resolving contradictions. It consisted, in other words, of a current of philosophy that sought the way to relate and integrate reason with faith in the best possible way but giving greater importance to faith.
It was a philosophical current that sought to find comprehensible answers to all the doubts that arose with regard to reason and faith, mainly because for scholastics the human being is the image of God, and for this reason, the scholastic school relied on dialectics, logic, ethics, theology, cosmology, metaphysics and psychology.
The development and history of scholastics coincided with the foundation of universities at the end of the 12th century and of religious orders such as Dominicans and Franciscans at the beginning of the 13th century. In universities, Aristotle’s recently translated texts provided the basis for a system of thought known as Aristotelianism. In addition, religious orders had their favorite doctors, whose teachings were also systematized. A characteristic of medieval universities were the public disputes in which the doctors of these schools debated before the student body. Although their systems were different, the discourse was made possible by the participants’ confidence in Aristotle’s method of logic.
Geographically, scholasticism developed in Italy and the Iberian Peninsula, in France, Germany, the Netherlands and the British Isles. The main schools were the University of Oxford, distinguished by philosophy, the University of Paris, by theology, and the University of Bologna, by law and medicine.
The main characteristics of scholasticism are the following:
In educational scholastics, the teacher and the student interact around the discussion that arises from the “quaestiones disputatae”. Scholasticism was the most important current in the schools and universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, to find an orderly system of the natural knowledge of Greece and Rome and the religious knowledge of Christianity.
Some of the didactic procedures used in the universities of the Middle Ages were lectio, collatio, gloss, opinion, dialogue, dialectical discussion, disputed questions, the use of logic, demonstration, discussion and public debate. Debate was used as an educational tool to stimulate, test and communicate the progress of thought in the area of philosophy and theology.
Revelation and reason in form were important for the scholastics.
with which they affirmed that God was the source of knowledge and truth.
Some of the scholasticism contributions to the economy were:
The scholasticism was in charge of proposing Christian doctrines within a rigid education of Christianity, where the most important and relevant concern was faith and reason. It was a way of working in an intellectual way, in which all thought was subject to the principle of authority ,and teaching was limited to the Bible as the main source of knowledge.
The main representatives of the scholasticism are the following:
The main works related to and based on scholasticism were: