Monetary policy is the policy that consists of actions that take place in a central bank, currency board or other regulatory committee that determines the size and growth rate of the monetary supply, which in turn affects interest rates. It is maintained through actions such as the modification of the interest rate, the purchase or sale of government bonds and the change in the amount of money that banks must keep in the vault or bank reserves.
It is an area within economic policy that is handled by central banks and which influences monetary and financial variables to achieve certain objectives.
Monetary policy is how central banks manage liquidity to create economic growth. Liquidity is what amount is in the money supply. That includes credit, cash, checks and money market mutual funds. The most important of these is credit and includes loans, bonds and mortgages.
Monetary policy consists of a series of processes exercised by the central bank or by the monetary authority of a determined country with the objective of achieving a set of goals that are oriented towards the growth and stability of the economy.
Monetary policy serves to:
The main instrument for regulating monetary policy is the central bank, which is responsible for controlling the total amount of money in circulation.
Open market operations are also an instrument used to inject liquidity into different credit institutions over a certain period of time in order for them to deliver a financial asset. They are important for controlling the amount of money and interest rates.
Marginal standing facilities are responsible for providing liquidity to credit institutions at a cost higher than the reference rate.
The manipulation of the legal coefficient of the bank.
There are several types of monetary policy, among which we mention:
The transmission mechanisms of the monetary policy are the set of channels through which a determined measure is adopted by the authorities which forms the desired effect on the variables of the last stage.
The analysis of the transmission mechanism has been perfected mainly for the case of the monetary policy and is in charge of collecting the effects that come from the differentiation in the interest rate and that generate a change in the inflation rate and income.
Monetary policy influences the levels of activity that occur in the short term and the rate of inflation that can occur in the short and long term in two main ways:
The main objective of the monetary policy is to achieve and maintain a low and stable inflation rate, and to achieve at the same time that the product can grow around its long-term trend.
Monetary policy is important because it has the responsibility to control disproportionate inflation of a country’s products and services. It ensures that there is no deflation in products.
Briceño V., Gabriela. (2019). Monetary policy. Recovered on 8 March, 2023, de Euston96: https://www.euston96.com/en/monetary-policy/