Renaissance art includes painting, sculpture, architecture, music and literature that emerged during the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries in Europe under the combined influences of nature, a renaissance of classical learning and an individualistic view of man. It was a period in which important artists and geniuses who worked individually emerged. The important families of Italy offered them countless benefits and protections. The art of the Renaissance came to break with all the old traditions to impose a new one, based on the human body and on all the different things that surrounded nature.
Renaissance art took place in Europe during the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and it is the art that takes conscience of the individual always respecting the classical models and focusing on man and his acts.
Its characteristics are based on the epoch, some of them are the following:
The origin of Renaissance art dates back to the city of Florence. It arose as a result of a progressive opening of the cities of the time towards trade. With this opening, a series of social groups known as the bourgeoisie emerged, which invested a large part of their money in comparing different artworks. For this reason, the artists of the time abandoned the exclusive service of God to allow the observation of nature and man. For this reason, it is said that the Renaissance came to break all the artistic traditions that existed in the Middle Ages.
Historical sources tell us that interest in nature, humanist learning and individualism were present in the late medieval period and became dominant in Italy during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and that at the same time, a series of social and economic changes such as the secularization of everyday life, the emergence of a rational economy of monetary credit and great social mobility drove this type of art.
The Renaissance art history is based on humanism, which was a movement organized by artists and intellectuals of the time. The different influences of the advances in the area of science, the advancement in medicine and in the studies of the works of different philosophers of antiquity developed a particular way of seeing beauty. The first cities to use Renaissance art were Florence, Venice and Milan, and they perfected the forms.
Renaissance art is important because it marks a step in the history of humanity, the modern era begins with it. Value is given to individuality, to personal achievements through knowledge and a new cult for fame emerges, a moment in which time sculptures and paintings seek the way to enhance important figures. The individual is also given the importance he deserved with respect to his creations and brought to society great concepts of knowledge and personal success.
In the field of architecture, Roman and Greek sculptures began to be elaborated, always taking care of perfection and right balance. Columns and pilasters were used, as well as semicircular arches. The Greek pediment gained importance again just like the domes.
They gave special importance to the right proportions and sought a new vision based on the beauty of naked bodies to represent different hidden passions. The human body had a very important value and the equestrian sculpture also became more important. The mythological and profane themes of the past became important again with art during the Renaissance period.
Renaissance painting was very similar to Roman painting. Three-dimensional works involving volume, color and light were created. The main vision of Renaissance painting was linear and aerial, and the technique they used was mainly oil painting. Religious and mythological themes were represented through it and the architectural funds were included in their works.
In sculpture, Ghiberti, Michelangelo and Donatello were the main exponents and were known worldwide.