Biology

Pluricellular organisms

Pluricellular organisms are a type of organisms that are composed of several cells, which are integrated differently and independently. Pluricellular organisms develop come along with cell specialization and division; cells become efficient and depend on other cells for their life needs.

What are pluricellular organisms?

Pluricellular organisms are those organisms composed of multiple cells. This number of cells can range from a few tens to several million and are classified into thirteen major groups of terrestrial life forms, including animals, plants, fungi, ciliates, algae and foraminifera.

Origin

Scientists have discovered a number of ways in which individual cells may have developed characteristics in multicellular life. These discoveries could even show how complex extraterrestrial life could evolve into alien worlds. The first known unicellular organisms appeared on Earth approximately 3.5 billion years ago, one billion years after Earth’s formation. The different life forms that are more complex lasted longer to evolve, and the first multicellular animals did not appear until about 600 million years ago. The evolution of multicellular life from simpler single-cell microbes was a turning point in biology history and has reformed the planet’s ecology.

Characteristics of pluricellular organisms

Structure

Pluricellular organism structure depends on its cells organization, which have different types of levels, which are:

Pluricellular organisms role

Pluricellular organisms’ primary function is to create tissues, organs, systems and organisms that together, give life to living beings and their proper functioning. In this way, they collaborate with the functions of:

Asexual reproduction

It is said that any reproductive process that does not involve meiosis stages is considered asexual. Because of the lack of new genetic material, an organism clones itself through this process and creates genetically identical organisms. Asexual reproduction is able to produce plants that are genetically identical to the original plant, because there is no combination of male and female gametes.

Traditionally, these plants survive well in stable environmental conditions compared to plants produced by sexual reproduction because they carry identical genes as their parents. In plants, there are two main types of asexual reproduction: vegetative reproduction and apomixis. An advantage of asexual reproduction is that the resulting plant will reach maturity more quickly, will be more resistant and can be produced by natural or artificial means.

Advantages and disadvantages of pluricellular organisms

Pluricellular organisms have several advantages that allow them to specialize in different cell groups. This is how the proper formation of different tissues and organs is achieved. A group of similarly differentiated cells that perform a certain function in a pluricellular organism is known as a tissue. Cooperation and interdependence of different cells are achieved. Each group of pluricellular beings has the ability to perform independent functions.

Their disadvantages include the problem of regenerating the entire organism from germ cells. Pluricellular organisms can suffer from cancer when cell growth regulation fails within the framework of normal development.

Written by Gabriela Briceño V.
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