The Mariana Trench is a crescent-shaped trench located in the western Pacific, just east of the Mariana Islands near Guam. The region surrounding the trench is very remarkable and is the cradle for many unique environments. The Mariana Trench contains the deepest points on Earth, bubbling vents of liquid sulfur and carbon dioxide, active mud volcanoes, and marine life adapted to pressures a thousand times greater than sea level. The Mariana Trench is the deepest place you can find in the ocean. Its depth is difficult to measure from the surface, but modern estimates vary by less than 1,000 feet.
In 1860, Charles Wyville Thomson, wanted to make a boat trip to conduct oceanographic studies. On December 21, 1872, he sailed on the HMS Challenger, a modified warship for the voyage carrying everything from fishing gear to microscopes. The main objective was to travel the oceans to measure depth, temperature and salinity. On March 23, 1875, while the team was conducting studies near the Mariana Islands, the sea literally swallowed 8 kilometers of a measuring line they were carrying.
It was at that moment that the researchers had managed to discover the abyss. In the nineteenth century, it was discovered that there was a place where no one had yet arrived, the deepest place that existed in the ocean, known as the black hole or the Mariana Trench. In 2012, the first expedition was made by James Cameron, who was the first person in charge of continuing studies on the grave.
The main characteristics of the Mariana Trench are as follows:
The Mariana Trench is located in the Pacific Ocean, east of the well-known Mariana Islands. It lies at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean, on the north western side, east and south of the islands. It has 11° 21´ north latitude and 142° 12´de east longitude, near Guam, a place located between the coast of Indonesia and China.
The Mariana Trench reaches a depth of 10,911 meters. There is not much information about the seabed of the grave because its depth is extreme. The icy temperatures and the high pressure make all the studies practically impossible to obtain.
In 2016, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration carried out an expedition with the aim of trying to gather information on the area. Some of the creatures they found are:
At 10,994 meters deep, it is considered the deepest point in the ocean. Its name was given in 1872. Only one man has managed to reach 10,898 meters in the submarine Deepsea Challenger, James Cameron. He described the trench as an environment very much like a lunar desert. The only thing he could see were blind worms that had adapted to the situation. In 2013, scientists discovered that the abyss was full of life.
Briceño V., Gabriela. (2019). Mariana Trench. Recovered on 7 October, 2021, de Euston96: https://www.euston96.com/en/mariana-trench/