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Physics# Kinetic energy

## What is kinetic energy?

## Characteristics of kinetic energy

## History

## What is it for?

## What it depends on?

## Units

## Formula

## Types

## Kinetic energy of translation and rotation

## Molecular Kinetic Energy

## Examples

**Kinetic energy** has always been present in our everyday life in different ways. It is **generated through the acceleration of a body to a given speed**. The adjective *"kinetic"* is given to this type of energy by it is **generated through movement**.

**Unit**: Julio**Symbol**: J**Formula**Ec= ½ mv²

The kinetic energy or energy of movement **is that produced by the movement of an object and is linked to its mass and speed**. It is abbreviated with the letters **Ec** or **Ek** and can be of two types, rotation or translation and molecular.

Among the **characteristics** of **kinetic energy**, the following can be mentioned:

- It is produced by the movement of a body.
- It increases with speed.
- It is
**higher as the mass**of the body that produces it is greater. - It’s measured in Julius.
- It can be
**transformed into heat**or other types of energy

The **history** of kinetic energy has been scientifically studied **since the end of the 18th century** by the German philosopher and mathematician **Gottfried Leibniz** and the Swiss mathematician and doctor **Johann Bernouilli**, who called it “**living force**” or “**vis viva**“. Years later, the Dutchman **Willem’s Gravensade** carried out a research that confirms the importance of the vis viva and was twice what is now known as kinetic energy. Gravensade threw weights on a clay surface in order to measure the penetration capacity of the objects thrown. With this experiment, he **determined that when loosening an object with double mass, the distance that sank in the clay was double**. On the other hand, if he threw two weights with the same mass, one at twice the speed of the other, the speed at which he penetrated the fastest weight was four times deeper. If the speed tripled, the hole became nine times greater. In this sense, it is proportional to the result of multiplying the mass by the speed twice.

**The concept that is currently handled**, makes its appearance in the **mid-nineteenth century through contributions of the French scientist Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis** in **1829** and is defined by the British physicist **William Thomson** (also known as Lord Kelvin) in **1850**.

Kinetic energy **allows us to generate changes that are related to speed**. This can be transformed into other types of energy such as light, water or wind energy that can **produce electricity to move many of the everyday devices we use in our daily lives**, in household appliances such as the blender, ventilation, in our means of **transport**, in our workplace, entertainment etc..

It **depends on the movement and the mass that produces this movement**. The greater the movement and the greater the mass, the greater the generation of kinetic energy.

Kinetic energy is measured in **Julius (J),** its mass in kilograms (kg) and its speed in meters over seconds (m/s).

The formula used to calculate kinetic energy is as follows: **Ec= ½ mv².**

Kinetic energy can be of two types:

**Translation**and**rotation**.**Molecular**.

The **kinetic energy of translation** is produced **when the parts of an object move in the same direction**, for example when we walk.

**Rotational kinetic energy** is generated **when a body rotates**, e.g., a mill.

As you can see both types are related to displacement in one direction or around its axis

**Molecular kinetic energy** is produced in the **molecules of matter at normal temperatures that are in a constant, high-speed motion.**

Here are some examples of kinetic energy:

**Riding a bicycle**generates transfer kinetic energy that can generate other types of light energy, such as the dynamo placed on the wheel of the bicycle that allows light to be generated while the bicycle moves.**The wagon of a roller coaster**generates this type of energy by descending one of its slopes.**A sailboat**generates kinetic energy when it moves in the sea. If there are two sailboats of different sizes, the one with the greatest mass can move faster than the smallest. This is because the kinetic energy is greater in relation to the body that produces it.**Windmills**also generate this type of energy by rotating their blades.**When we run**, we also generate it. In this case it will be determined by the speed and our moving body mass.

Written by Gabriela Briceño V.

Briceño V., Gabriela. (2019). *Kinetic energy*. Recovered on 8 March, 2023, de Euston96: https://www.euston96.com/en/kinetic-energy/