Chemistry

Ionic bond

Ionic bond is the type of bond in which electrons can be transferred from one atom to another, leading to the formation of positive and negative ions. The electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions holds the compounds together. It is also known as an electrovalent bond and is a type of bond formed from the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions in a chemical compound. This type of bond is formed when valence electrons that are located in a more external position of an atom are permanently transferred to another atom. The atom that loses the electrons becomes a positively charged ion or cation, while the one that obtains them becomes a negatively charged ion or anion.

Ionic bond

Related topics

Covalent bond, metallic bond, chemical bonds

What is an ionic bond?

The ionic bond is in which atoms have the ability to transfer or share their valence electrons. Some gain and some lose electrons to produce a noble gas configuration.

Characteristics of the ionic bond

Some of the most notable features of ionic links are as follows:

How an ionic bond is formed?

In order for the formation of an ionic bond to occur correctly, there must be a reaction or a combination of chemical reactions. The ionic bond occurs when there is a union of two atoms through the ionic bond, which happens when an electron leaves the atom that has the least electronegative charge and becomes part of the electronic cloud of the atom that is more electronegative. Ionic bonds are produced between ions of different sign as charges of different equivalence are attracted.

Classification

Ionic bonds are classified according to the ions their compounds possess. Thus, there are anions and cations.

Anions

Anions are ions with a negative electrical charge. Anions do not have a large number of electrons and are made up of non-metals, although there are a few that are metals and not metals. Some examples of them are:

Cations

Cations are ions that possess a positive electrical charge. The most common existing cations are formed from metals, although some are non-metals.

Properties

Some of its main properties are the following:

Structure of the ionic bond

They are formed by an atom joined to another through a covalent bond, the bonding electrons are shared by both atoms. In the covalent bond, the two non-metallic atoms share one or more electrons, i.e., they bind through their electrons in the last orbital, which depends on the atomic number in question.

Examples of ionic bond

Sodium chloride or common salt is an example of ionic bonding: when it is prepared, sodium and chlorine are combined, the first losing an electron that is captured by the second. In this way, two oppositely charged ions are formed: a positively charged cation and a negatively charged anion. The difference between the charges of the ions then causes an electromagnetic interaction force between the atoms that is able to hold them together. The ionic bond is the union in which the elements involved will accept or lose electrons. In the solution, the ionic bonds can be broken, and the ions are then considered to be dissociated.

Written by Gabriela Briceño V.
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