Roman art comes from Etruscan and Greek art, especially Hellenistic art. It was characterized both by monumental buildings and by having a utilitarian purpose, because most buildings were designed for a social purpose.
Roman art corresponds to the artistic production developed in ancient Rome. Initially, it originated under the influence of two towns who lived in Europe. First of all, the Etruscans, who were located in northern Italy and who developed a particular art based on mythological themes taken from the Greeks. Secondly, the Greeks, settled in southern Italy and Sicily, who developed an art that takes up themes from classical mythology. However, it is important to note that Roman art does not celebrate gods like the Greeks, nor life like the Etruscans. Roman art celebrates first and foremost the greatness of Rome and the Romans.
To the Greek influence are added novelties such as the use of new materials, different construction systems and modifications in architectural orders with a tendency towards the colossal due to its large buildings. It is possible to emphasize the practical and/or utilitarian aspects of their works, as well as their decorative purpose. In techniques such as sculpture, perfection and similarity Roman Art was similar to Greek culture, due to realism predominance and human figures with narrative character.
It could be distinguished in three periods:
Monarchy: 753 B.C. to 510 B.C.
Republic: 510 B.C. to 27 B.C.
Empire: 27a.C. to 476 A.D.
It was distinguished by a civil character based on the curved line, in which technical novelties were introduced such as the arch, the vault and the use of domes.
It has a strong influence of Greek origin, in which novelties are introduced such as: the Tuscan column, capital similar to the Doric, smooth shaft and supported on a base; the use of the composite order, Corinthian capital with the volutes of the Ionian; and the use of a kind of concrete or mortar based on sand and pebbles.
The architecture acquires public predominance in society and urbanism, in which they stand out:
The few paintings that have been known represent a utilitarian character in which it is used to decorate building walls, using the fresco technique. Therefore, they are kept in buildings and ruins. The mosaic stands out as a representative technique, with geometric and animalistic motifs; where it was looked to represent daily life themes or mythology. The perspective was used to give a sensation of depth and chiaroscuro was used to represent volumes and expressions.
In the fresco it was common to see colors such as yellows, reds and oranges representing mythological and historical themes.
The mosaic was made with tesserae (small-sized stones) of different colors, as well as geometric, animalistic and human figures.
As in painting, sculpture was influenced by Greek culture, where materials were marble and bronze. The presence of the bust or portrait predominates with enough expressiveness, almost always serene or sad. In the background is the presence of narrative reliefs in which warrior values and triumphs over enemies and the human figure were exalted over any other decorative element.