Johannes Kepler played a key role in the deep change that the current of human thought had and is considered as one of the most significant representatives of the so-called Scientific Revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries. Although he received only basic educational training and was initially oriented by theology, he was able to make himself known quickly for his mathematical skills and theoretical creativity. Kepler defended his new system against ancient astronomers who believed in Ptolemy system, against natural philosophers of Aristotelian origin, in contradiction of Tycho Brahe's and its new "mixed system" followers, and even against the Copernican standard position in which the new system was to be considered simply as a computational device and not necessarily as a physical reality.
Johannes Kepler was an important astronomer and German mathematician who was a faithful exponent of the so-called Scientific Revolution, which stood out in a remarkable way thanks to his contribution to the movement laws of the planets in their orbit around the sun.
Johannes Kepler was born in the German village of Weil der Stadt on 27 December 1571. Descended from a wealthy family and a grandfather who served as the city’ s mayor, his father participated in the army and his mother was a healer, who was later accused of witchcraft and imprisoned. He was educated in Swabia; at the Leonberg, Adelberg and Maulbronn schools; later at Tübingen University where he became “Magister Artium” before beginning his studies at the Theology Faculty.
Before finishing his theological studies in Tübingen, in March 1594 Kepler accepted an offer to teach mathematics as Georg Stadius’ successor at the Protestant school in Graz in Austria. He met an important mathematics teacher in his youth, Michael Mästlin, a Copernicus’ follower, which brought him closer to laws and teachings, making him a faithful defender of Heliocentric theory. He inherited from Tycho Brahe, the position of imperial mathematician of Rudolf II. He died in 1632 in Bavaria, Germany.
Some of his main discoveries are listed below.
Johannes Kepler created three different laws that are:
Kepler enunciated the laws that mathematically described the planets’ movement in their orbits around the sun. He also demonstrated through his studies the law of Universal Gravitation and established the basis of classical mechanics through his relative laws of motion. He developed a new infinitesimal system in mathematics, which was a forerunner of calculus.
Among his main works we can mention the following: