Today we can see how psychology includes a variety of different theoretical orientations. The types of psychological paradigms that exist include a series of behavioral guidelines that encourage us to practice professional practices in different ways. Behaviorism is one of the most common orientations in today's world among psychologists. Behaviorists perceive the living being as a "tabula rasa", in whom behavior is determined by the reinforcements and punishments they receive.
Behaviorism is a branch of psychology that studies the common laws that determine different human and even animal behaviors. It focuses on the behavior that can be observed, prioritizes for this reason the objective of the subjective.
It is responsible for studying the use of different experimental procedures with the aim of studying observable behavior, or behavior, considering the environment in which man develops and the set of stimuli and responses thereof. It then studies the interaction that occurs between living beings and the stimuli of the environment or external environment.
Its main features are as follows:
The Behaviorism school was developed from different studies on animal behavior. For behaviorists, it was not important to think about what was thought or felt, and they focused more on what was really visible. For this reason, they studied what could be seen by replacing introspection as a research method with laboratory studies on conditioning as a type of learning.
The different studies carried out by Darwin at the end of the 19th century gave rise to the appearance of different ways of thinking with respect to the human sciences. Around the year 1913, the first theories about behaviorism began to appear. John Watson was the first to initiate the new school of behaviorism. He focused on what could be observed, studying only the facts and behaviors that were visible to the scholar’s eyes. Different laboratory tests were started, thinking that one could get to know the way in which a person or animal could react to a stimulus, to get to know what was in the mind. By the beginning of the 20th century, Watson argued that observable behavior as an object of study gave rise to behavior. Ivan Pavlov was one of the main forerunners who contributed ideas to Watson’s theory. By 1920, radical behaviorism flourished and was known worldwide. By the 1980s, there was an emergence of behaviorism, which became indispensable to solving some problems. Several behavioral theories emerged based on previous studies of behaviorism.
Among the main representatives of behaviorism, we can mention the following:
It has collaborated greatly with psychology, on different investigations regarding the principles of learning, which have been systematized in the theory of classical and operative conditioning. It helps to modify behaviour and to elaborate therapies for it. Research on different teaching and training methods.
One of the applications in psychology is the behavioral therapy that tries to teach the person to emit answers before the stimuli that previously caused them maladaptive answers. It is used in programmed instruction and behavioral objectives within the branch of education.
Briceño V., Gabriela. (2019). Behaviorism. Recovered on 3 October, 2023, de Euston96: https://www.euston96.com/en/behaviorism/